AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT Essentials: Autodesk Official Press [Book].

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Saved successfully! Skip to main content. Start your free trial. Book description Learn AutoCAD quickly and painlessly with this practical hands-on guide AutoCAD Essentials gets you up to speed quickly, with hands-on instruction on the program’s core features and functions.

Master the AutoCAD interface and basic 2D drawing skills Work with splines, polylines, hatch patterns, and gradients Organize objects with layers, groups, blocks, and cross-referencing Use constraints and layouts, print and export, model in 3D, and much more If you’re a design professional, AutoCAD is need-to-know software.

Show and hide more. Table of contents Product information. Prabhakar Murthy, Maximilian Kammerer Cut warranty costs by reducing fraud with transparent processes and balanced control Warranty Fraud Management provides …. Get it now. Open the customization menu by clicking the rightmost icon on the status bar and deselect Clean Screen, Coordinates, Isometric Drafting, and Annotation Monitor from the context menu that appears.

You can control which buttons appear on the status bar using this menu. J www. Take a look at the InfoCenter at the top right of the screen see Figure 1. Click in the search box and type solid. Multiple online books are searched, and relevant results appear in the left panel.

Click the Help button on the right edge of the InfoCenter. The Help Table Of Contents page opens. All AutoCAD documentation is accessible through this interface. The hyphen is used to separate inches from fractions of an inch rather than feet from inches. Decimal Metric users should select this type. One decimal unit can be equal to 1 millimeter, 1 centimeter, or any metric unit that you decide. Engineering Like the Architectural type, engineering units feature feet and inches, but the inches are represented in decimal form—for example, Fractional American woodworkers often prefer to set AutoCAD drawings in fractional units of inches because that is how their work is normally reckoned.

Click the New button on the Quick Access toolbar. Most commands have aliases that minimize typing. You can press Enter or the spacebar to enter commands command names never have spaces. Commands and their options can be typed in uppercase or lowercase. Select Architectural from the Type drop-down menu.

Metric users should select Decimal length units. Click the Insertion Scale drop-down menu and select Inches or Centimeters for metric. Click OK to close the Drawing Units dialog box. Now You Know In this chapter, you learned how to sign in to Autodesk , open and save sample drawings, identify user interface elements, access model- and paperspace, change workspaces, control the appearance of the ribbon, type commands using AutoComplete, identify commands in the graphical user interface, and set the drawing units.

You will learn how to correct mistakes, navigate two-dimensional space, and use coordinate systems to draw accurately. Exercise 2. Type 1 and press Enter. The Navigation bar appears on the right side of the user I interface see Figure 2. The last-used tool appears on top. Click ZOOM command. Click Pan in the Navigation bar, drag the mouse from left to right, and then press Enter to end the command. For an alternative method, press and hold the mouse wheel and pan the drawing to center the refrigerator on the canvas as shown in There are many Figure 2.

Pan to the lower-left corner of the refrigerator by right-clicking, choosing Pan from the context menu, and dragging in the canvas. I Press Esc to end the command. Click points A and B, as shown in Figure 2. Roll the mouse wheel forward to zoom in further and drag the mouse capability of AutoCAD. Type Z and press the spacebar. Type P and press Enter to execute Zoom Previous.

Repeat this process until you can see the entire refrigerator. You can choose an option by typing its blue letter and pressing Enter, by clicking the highlighted option on the command line itself, or by pressing the down-arrow key and selecting the option from a dynamic input menu in the drawing window.

The default option is indicated in angled brackets, which in the case of the ZOOM command is real time. You initiate the default option by either clicking Enter or pressing the spacebar. To see everything that has been drawn, you can use the Extents option of the ZOOM command or, better yet, use this special shortcut: double-click the mouse wheel. Position the cursor over the bathroom sink and roll the mouse wheel forward to zoom in. Notice that the view stays centered on the sink without your having to pan see Figure 2.

Drag the mouse wheel to make slight panning adjustments if necessary to center the target object onscreen. Practice zooming into the kitchen sink, the stove, and the bathtub using the various methods shown in this section. Save your work. Your model should now resemble Ex You will begin by drawing some lines and rectangles without worrying yet about entering measurements.

Turn off all status toggles in the application status bar if they are not You will use some of off already. Status toggles are highlighted in blue when they are on and the status toggles appear in gray when they are off see Figure 2.

Open the Customization menu I last icon on the right and toggle off Graphics Performance. Click another point to draw your second segment. The prompt on the command line reads as follows: LINE Specify next point or [Undo]: Press the down-arrow key and then click Undo in the dynamic menu that appears near the cursor. The last point you clicked is undone, but the rubber band continues to be connected to the cursor, indicating that you can keep drawing lines.

Click two arbitrary points to create a single line segment. Right-click www. Open the Application menu and click the Options button at the bottom. Click the User Preferences tab in the Options dialog box that appears. J Time-Sensitive Right-Click is just that: an option. Select the Home tab in the ribbon and click the Line tool in the Draw panel. Click two points and draw another line. Right-click quickly to terminate the LINE command.

Right-click again to repeat the last command and then click two points on the canvas. Command window to see what options 1. Click the Rectangle tool in the Draw panel and then click two are available and opposite corner points on the canvas.

Objective requested at each step. Press Enter to repeat the last command. This time pay attention to I the prompts in the Command window. However, in this case you will use the default option, which comes before the word orr. A new prompt appears. You will again take the default option in this prompt, which is to specify the other corner point. Click the other corner point, and the rectangle is drawn.

In addition, the command is automatically terminated. Type F and press Enter to execute the Fillet option. Type 2 or 5 for metric and press Enter. Click two points to draw the rectangle. It is acceptable to input the foot symbol f when using Architectural units.

Draw another rectangle and observe that it also has rounded corners. Zero out the Fillet option by pressing the spacebar, typing F, pressing Enter, typing 0, and pressing Enter again.

Click two points to draw a sharp-edged rectangle. The next time you launch AutoCAD, the Drawing Recovery Manager will automatically appear, allowing you to recover drawings that were open and possibly corrupted when the program unexpectedly came to a halt. Type L and press Enter. Click two points on the canvas and then press the Esc key; the LINE command is terminated, but the single segment you just created remains.

The Esc key will get you out of any running command or dialog box. Type E and press the spacebar. Click the line created in step 1 and Objective then right-click; the segment is erased.

Click each of the segments, one at a time. Click the Undo arrow on the Quick Access toolbar. The lines you deleted in step 4 reappear. Click the Redo button, and the lines disappear again. Undo again and, without issuing any command, click two points The virtually unlimited around the same three lines to create a selection window completely number of undo and redo actions in surrounding them. Press the Delete key to erase the selected objects.

AutoCAD means that it 8. A list of all the commands is a forgiving program. Select Erase from the menu to past the point when you undo the previous step. You can draw Objective objects in Euclidean space using the following coordinate systems: Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, and spherical. Once you learn coordinate system syntax, you can use the systems interchangeably to draw accurately in any context.

In two-dimensional drawings, the z-coordinate value of all objects is 0, so objects are expressed solely in terms of x- and y-coordinates see Figure 2.

Click the Line tool on the Draw panel. The origin point of Euclidean space has coordinates 0 in x and 0 in y, which is written as 0,0. Therefore, relative coordinates are used more frequently. Click an arbitrary point in the Objective as the origin point, middle of the living room. The coordinates of the point you clicked relatively speaking.

Type 3 f,0 or 90,0 for metric and press Enter twice. Right-click in the drawing canvas and hold for longer than milliseconds to open the context menu. Type 0,6 f or 0, for metric and press Enter. A line measuring 6 f or 1. Type -3 f,0 or ,0 for metric and press Enter. Type 0,-6 f or 0, for metric and press Enter twice to complete a rectangle.

Click the Rectangle tool on the Draw panel and then click an arbitrary point at the bottom of the living room. Type 3 f,6 f or 90, for metric and press Enter. The same rectangle that you more laboriously drew with lines is already done. By default, zero 9. In addition, positive angles are typically measured Exercise 2. In polar east.

These defaults can be set in the UNITS coordinates, points are located using two measurements: the distance from command. East is the default direction of zero degrees.

A 3 f or 90 for metric line is drawn at an arbitrary angle. Press L and then press the spacebar. Negative angles are measured clockwise from angle zero by default. UCS stands for user coordinate system. Type on and press Enter. An icon indicating the directions of the positive x- and y-axes is displayed in the lower-left corner of the canvas see Figure 2. Type UCS and press Enter. Type Z and press Enter. Type 90 and press Enter to rotate the coordinate system.

The new line has a different orientation with respect to the original line you drew in step 1 see Figure 2. Both lines were drawn at a degree angle but in different coordinate systems. To restore the current coordinate system to its original state, called the world coordinate system WCS , type UCS and press Enter twice.

The plan is oriented to the WCS as it was initially. Draw Circles, Arcs, and Polygons Arcs are sections of circles. A polygon with a large number of segments may look like a circle but is fundamentally different. There are many options for creating circles, arcs, and polygons. AutoCAD provides these options to make it easier to create accurate shapes based on all the types of geometric situations that typically arise in drawings.

Zoom into the stove in the kitchen. Two of the burner circles are missing, and you will draw them. On the Home tab, take a look at the Layer drop-down menu in the Layers panel and observe that Furniture is the current layer because you see www. Open the Layer drop- I down menu and select Equipment as the current layer see Figure 2. Drawn objects appear on whichever layer is current. Think of layers as invisible sheets of tracing paper that you draw on.

You will use preexisting points as guides in drawing the burners. Click the Circle tool on the Draw panel. Select Node from the context menu Figure 2. Type 3 g or 8 for metric and press Enter to create a circle with a radius of 3 g or 8 for metric. J Note that typing the inch symbol is unnecessary. Never type m, cm, or mm to represent metric units. Right-click to repeat the last command.

Hold down Shift and right-click to open the Object Snap context menu. I Select Node and then click point B shown in Figure 2. Object snaps listed in 7. Hold Shift again, right-click, and choose Node. Click point C shown the context menu must in Figure 2. You will 8. Click the arrow under the Circle tool in the Draw panel and select learn how to set up 3-Point. Click the circle you running object snaps in Chapter 3. Hold Shift, right-click again, and type G.

Notice that this letter is underlined in the word Tangent in the context menu refer to Figure 2. Click the circle on the bottom left. AutoCAD draws a circle precisely tangent to the three others see Figure 2. Erase all three point objects and the last circle you drew to leave the four burners of the stove. In the next set of steps you will use one such arc option to draw a door swing. Pan and zoom into the bathroom by dragging and rotating the mouse wheel.

Select Doors from the Layer drop-down menu in the Layers panel. Select Center, Start, End. This is the sequence in which information must be entered. Hold Shift and right-click. Select Endpoint from the context menu and click the start point B shown in Figure 2.

The arc appears, and the command is completed. You can draw these shapes inside or outside a circle or specify the edge length, as shown in the following steps. Make the Furniture layer current by selecting it from the Layer drop-down menu in the Layers panel. Zoom into the living room. Type 4 and press Enter to draw a square. A 2 f or 60 in metric square appears. Press Enter to repeat the last command, type 6, and press Enter to draw a hexagon.

Click a point in the living room where you want to center the hexagon. Press Enter to accept the default Inscribed In Circle option. Type 1f or 30 for metric as the radius of the circle and press Enter. Use Fillet and Chamfer Fillet and Chamfer are tools that create transitions between objects. Fillet creates arcs, and Chamfer creates lines. Fillet and chamfer 2.

Press the down-arrow key three more times and press Enter to previewing works only select the Distance option in the Dynamic Input display see if When A Command Figure 2. Click the second line to perform the chamfer and complete the command. The I chamfer is shown in the middle of Figure 2. Type 1f or 30 for metric and press Enter. Click the second line to sticky; they stay the commit to that particular radius.

In the case of crossing lines, you must select the lines on the portions that you want to keep, as shown in these steps. Type F and press Enter. Press the down-arrow key to access the Dynamic Input display and select Radius. Type 0 and press Enter. Now Fillet will not create an arc at all. Click the points A and B, as shown in Figure 2. The lines are joined at their endpoints, and the remaining portions of the lines beyond their intersection point are trimmed away.

Now You Know In this chapter, you learned how to pan and zoom around 2D drawings and draw lines, rect- angles, circles, arcs, and polygons. You have filleted and chamfered sets of lines, used absolute and relative coordinate systems, and created objects using specific measurements.

In addition, you now know how to cancel, erase, and undo, and how to correct your mistakes. Drawing aids are essential modes and methods of entering data that, once mastered, allow you to create measured drawings with ease.

I highly recommend learning all of the drawing aids because they will make you a more productive draftsperson. Most drawing aids can be toggled on or off from the application status bar.

Additional settings and dialog boxes are accessible by right-clicking the individual status bar toggles. Snap constrains your ability to draw objects so that they automatically start and end precisely at grid intersections. Grid and Snap are most helpful when used together so that you can draw objects that snap to the grid. Figure 3. Choose the acad. Open the Customization menu on the extreme right of the status bar and select Units and LineWeight.

Click in the drawing window to close the Customization menu. Change Units to Architectural if you are using Imperial units; leave Decimal selected if you are using metric units. Change Grid X spacing to 1gg or 10 for metric and press Tab; Grid Y spacing updates with the same value.

I Click OK. Zoom or pan as 5. Click the second point, 2f intersections in the drawing window. Open the Default drop-down list, select 0. Type L and press Enter twice to continue drawing from the last point. Toggle Grid off in the status bar. Move the cursor horizontally to the right from the point at which the rubber band is anchored. Click the drawing canvas when the dynamic input value reads 2f-0g I or mm , as shown in Figure 3.

Snap can be used independently of grid; the grid is merely a visual drawing aid. Transpparent Commands Status bar buttons can be toggled on or off and their settings adjusted while another command is running. Commands that operate while another command is running are called transparent commands. Typing an apostrophe before a command forces it to be run transparently.

Specify first point: Employ Ortho and Polar Tracking Ortho mode aids in drawing orthogonall horizontal or vertical lines. J When Polar Tracking is Exercise 3.

Toggle off Snap mode by pressing the F9 key. Toggle on Ortho mode by clicking the Ortho toggle in the status bar or by pressing the F8 key. Ortho mode constrains the line vertically, I and typing in an explicit value obviates the need for Snap.

The dash is a necessary 5. Toggle off Ortho mode by clicking its status bar button. Right- whole and fractional Objective inches. Move the cursor around and observe that green dashed lines appear in eight locations around a circle in 45 increments. Move the cursor to the right relative to the last point, type 2 f or for metric , and press Enter see Figure 3.

Just like Ortho mode, Polar Tracking guarantees that the last line drawn was perfectly aligned to the set increment; you merely had to move the cursor in the general direction you wanted to direct the new line. Ortho and Polar Tracking save you from having to type in angles or coordinate values explicitly or to even think about coordinate systems. Instead of being tied to a spatial grid as with Snap , PolarSnap is based on relative polar coordinates. Exercise 3. Toggle on Snap by clicking its icon on the status bar.

Right-click the same button and choose Snap Settings from the context menu. Type 1g or 10 for metric in the Polar Distance text box this dialog was shown in Figure 3.

Click OK. Click when the value is 6gg or mm see Figure 3. Move the cursor vertically down and click to draw a line when the value reads 1f or mm. Right-click to end the LINE command. Press the spacebar to repeat the LINE command. Toggle off Snap mode by clicking its icon on the status bar, thus disabling PolarSnap.

Move the cursor horizontally to the right until it overshoots the last line drawn in step 5. Click to draw the line without worrying about its length see Figure 3.

Right-click to complete the command. Type F for Fillet and press Enter. Verify that Radius is set to 0 in the Command window and then click the vertical and horizontal lines on the portions of the lines that you want to keep marked A and B in Figure 3.

Select Running Object Snaps The lines you have drawn thus far are all precisely connected because they were chained together as they were drawn or their coordinates were known. Aside from these special circumstances, lines must be connected using object snaps to ensure accuracy. Press Z and then Enter.

Zoom in again if necessary until you can see that the endpoint of the line you just drew is not on the horizontal line see Figure 3. No matter how carefully you clicked point A in the previous step, the line you drew will not be on the edge it will either fall short of it or overshoot it. You can toggle on one Click Zoom Previous again if necessary to return to the original object snap type at a time using the Object view. Choose Object Snap 4.

Click the line drawn in step 3, and press the Delete key. Settings from this menu 5. Toggle on Object Snap on the status bar. Right-click the same icon to access the Select All and Clear All buttons. Toggle off Polar Tracking on the status bar. Move the cursor close to point A in Figure 3. Move the cursor down to point B and wait until the green marker appears, perpendicular marker appears.

When it does, click the drawing AutoCAD will calculate the desired point exactly. Press Esc to end the command. This line is connected precisely at both ends because I Object Snap was used. Zoom into point A or B in Figure 3. Click Zoom Extents in the Navigation bar to return to the initial overall view. Hold down Shift, right-click to open the Object Snap context menu, and choose Nearest. Object snaps invoked from the context menu override any running object snaps. Click point A, shown in Figure 3.

Nearest ensures that the new line is I attached somewhere along the edge of the horizontal line. Choosing None in the Snap context menu overrides any running snaps with no snap. Move the cursor close to point B, as shown in Figure 3. Harness the From Snap Rather than snapping to an existing geometrical feature such as an endpoint, midpoint, intersection, and so on , how do you snap a set distance and direction from one?

Answer: Use the From snap, as shown in the following exercise. Hold Shift and right-click to open the Object Snap context menu. Select From in the context menu. Click point A shown in Figure 3. This is the point from which you will specify a displacement. Move the cursor to point B and wait for the running perpendicular snap marker to appear. When it does, click to specify the second point of the line. Select the line you just drew and press the Delete key. Apply Object Snap Tracking Object snap tracking is for situations where you want to snap to a point that has a geometric relationship with two or more snap points.

Toggle on Object Snap Tracking by clicking its icon on the status bar. Move the cursor over point A in Figure 3. Do not click yet. Move the cursor over point B in Figure 3. Move the cursor down vertically to establish the second tracking line. Again, do not click yet. Move the cursor down until both tracking lines intersect.

When they do, click point C to set the center point of the circle. Type 9 or for metric and press Enter to create a circle with a radius of 9gg or mm. Click the Rectangle tool on the Draw panel. Move the cursor over the endpoint marked A in Figure 3. Move the cursor to point B in Figure 3. Type 1f,-6 or , for metric and press Enter. The rectangle and drawing is complete see Figure 3. Now You Know In this chapter, you learned how to draw with Grid and Snap when your geometry conforms to a spatial grid; how to use Ortho and Polar Tracking to draw horizontal, vertical, and angled lines; how to use PolarSnap when angled lines are measured in set increments; how to use running object snaps to save time connecting objects; how to use the From snap to draw in relation to another object; and finally, how to use object snap tracking to snap to points implied by the position of other snap points.

Most of your time will be spent editing entities. In complex drawings you have to plan how you will select only those entities you want to edit while leaving all other entities unaffected.

You will learn a number of techniques for adding and removing entities from the selection sett, which is the collection of entities your chosen editing command acts upon. In complex drawings, selecting would be tedious if you had to click one object at a time. Zoom into Stair A in the building core. The prompt in the Command window reads as follows: ERASE Select objects: This is the same way almost every command begins—with the opportunity to create a selection set.

Click point A and then B, as shown in Figure 4. Observe that a Objective transparent implied window appears between these points. The www. This particular selection includes the stair arrows, handrails, and three lines representing stair treads near the break lines.

Type R for Remove and press Enter. Whatever the green window crosses is selected. The crossing selection removes the handrail and two of the stair treads because the selection was made at the Remove objects: prompt. Click point A and then point B, as shown in Figure 4. This implied window selects the short line segment trapped in the break line and removes it from the selection set. Type A for Add and press Enter. Click both of the break lines to add them to the selection set.

All of Objective the break line segments are selected in two clicks because the break lines are polylines. Hold Shift and click the break lines again. They are removed from the selection set without being at the Remove objects: prompt. Click point A, as shown in Figure 4.

Press the down-arrow key to J expand the dynamic input menu onscreen. Select WPolygon. The related CPolygon option creates a polygonal crossing A window, shown in transparent green.

The Fence option allows you to draw a multisegmented line that selects whatever it crosses. Click points B through H, as shown in Figure 4. Only those objects completely contained within the borders of the blue window will be selected. Press Enter to make the selection. Square blue dots appear on the selected objects—these are called grips, and you will learn to use them later in this chapter.

Press Esc to deselect. Toggle on Ortho mode in the status bar. Without being concerned with measurements or accuracy, draw a line under the word Stairr, a circle around the letter A, and a rectangle around the entire section, in that order see Figure 4. Select the circle and the line and press Enter.

The grips for the circle and line appear; press Esc to deselect. Click the Erase icon on the Modify panel.

 
 

 

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This book is designed to give the student an introduction to the AutoCAD software. The book contains step-by-step p. AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT I Mac OS X–compliant printer Free Auutodesk Software for Students and Edducators The Autodesk Education.

 
 

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